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Wrought Iron And Wood Coffee Table – In the previous article, we have presented the Ecuador chair along with a summary of all the research and development work of two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). On this occasion, we introduce only one of the products, which is physalis or uvilla, as it is called in the vernacular in its country of origin, Ecuador.

Yuvila plant (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant from the Solanaceae family and its fruits grow and ripen inside the calyx. Its origin is uncertain but it is believed to have been in the Andes of South America such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).

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Mainly, we find it in tropical America, Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main producing countries of Yuvila are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. The main exporting countries worldwide are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).

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The genus “physaloides” includes 90-100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the modern edibles is Physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, gooseberry or Andean cherry.

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This fruit is considered a “functional food” because it has immune-stimulating, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, and diuretic properties according to Harman (2004). In addition, medicinal properties such as purifying the blood, reducing albumin in the kidneys, clearing throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, cleaning cataracts and controlling amoebiasis help it (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and Ministry of National Planning). , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).

Internally we work hard on fermentation. Therefore, the first step was to ferment the houses for further analysis through surveys of 100 people, both food sector professionals and actual consumers. The tastings were of an emotional type with the simple purpose of obtaining a positive or negative response regarding the acceptance of the fermented fruit.

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We are inspired by a Japanese method and practice of lactic fermentation of fruit, such as the famous “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is actually a plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume), which literally translates to “dried plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu liquor soaked with umeboshi.

In the case of umboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that is cultivated in early summer when it begins to change color from green to yellow and preserved for several months through lactic fermentation in salt. Then they are dehydrated in the sun and kept semi-dry. They are usually red in color because they are fermented with red shiso leaves, but they are also available without shiso. The most common way to consume them in Japan is in a cup of bacha tea, desalted in tempura or, most importantly, on top of a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, a reference to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)

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The purpose of this development is to obtain fermented physalis similar to a Japanese product called “umeboshi” with very high nutritional value, promote its use and release it as a new salable product of the Andes worldwide.

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This is called a cellular process in which glucose is used to obtain energy, in which the glucose is partially oxidized and in which the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used in the production of mainly dairy products such as yogurt. Veili, crème fraîche, lambic type are used. beer as well as vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or emboshi.

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Lactic fermentation is done in three stages. Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter are stronger in fermentation and create a favorable acidic environment for subsequent bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment is too acidic for most Leuconostoc bacteria and mesantroids and other Leuconostoc species. They take control in the third phase, various lactobacilli ferment the remaining sugars and lower the pH.

These bacteria, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, have the great characteristic of being halophilic, which is why lactic fermentations have always been about the percentage of salt, we always talk about at least 2% – 3% salt. We talk about the relationship. to the total weight of what is to be fermented. In this case, in addition to creating a selective environment for the life of lactic bacteria, salt extracts water from products by osmosis and accelerates fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi” it is traditionally made with 20% – 25% salt, but they can be found in the market from 4%.

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Traditionally, glass or wooden containers are used for this type of fermentation, always taking care to cover the product completely with the liquid to avoid direct contact of the product with oxygen, but it has an aerobic fermentation, that’s why the vacuum. Bags are currently being used.

Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen because it was an acceptable salt range in fermented products and previous experiments. All made in a vacuum bag with 85% vacuum.

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Fermentation was carried out in a refrigerator at 4 °C for 2 months, this was done because in experiments with other products, performing cold fermentation gave better organoleptic results and improved taste and aroma.

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Experiments with more salt are too salty for us, and most of the special flavor of physalis is hidden behind the intensity of the salt. Tests with less salt content had better acceptance. Nevertheless, the first tests can be used after soaking and desalting the product, insisting that part of its flavor and aroma is lost in this soaking.

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It can be said that fermented yvela can be used as part of condiments, sauces, etc. or as a simple snack, like “emboshi”, due to its very similar acidic and salty characteristics. In this section, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermented liquid that is extracted from Yuvila, it is a clear and salty liquid that can be used as any fermented sauce and any preparation such as sauce, broth, sauce, marinade, etc. strengthens

After several months of development of fermented products and various organoleptic and consumer tests, we observed that the most accepted amount of salt was 3%, which was 80% in the product acceptance tasting on 100 people, and other salt percentages were 6% and 8% if in Fewer numbers are accepted, which is the lowest acceptance rate of 12%.

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This opens up great possibilities for us in different lactic acid fermented fruits. We have already tried different fruits and vegetables looking for other uses for lactic acid fermentation with very good nutritional and edible results for It is used in restaurants and on a daily basis.

– boxes ALVARES, GILBERTO; Campord Vivanco, Jenny; Spinoza Mejia, Marco; Technical guide for the cultivation of Yuvila (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.

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– Fisher, Gerard; Martinez, Orlando. Quality and maturity of Gooseberry Cape (physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogotá. 1999.

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– Fisher, Gerard; Miranda, Diego; Wilson Piedrahita, Jorge Romero. Progress in cultivation, post-harvest and export of Cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.

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– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional evaluation of dried fenugreek gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a tray dryer. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.

– Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, General Coordination of National Information System; To research and produce multi-sector data (DIGDM). Agroecological economic zoning of Yuvila (Physalis peruviana L.) cultivation in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.

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– Ministry of Foreign Trade, Directorate of Commercial and Investment Information. Foreign trade monthly bulletin page 16. 2013.

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