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Round Coffee Table With Wheels – In the previous entry, we presented the Ecuadorian chair and a summary of all research and development work on two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). In this case we will show only one product, physalis or Uvira as they are commonly known in their country of origin, Ecuador.

Grapefruit (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant of the nightshade family, and the fruit matures in the calyx. Its origin is unknown, but it is believed to be in the Andes of South America, such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).

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Round Coffee Table With Wheels

We find it mainly in tropical regions of the Americas, Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main producers of grapefruit are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Globally, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO, 1982).

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The genus “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998), and one of the edible plants today is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, cape gooseberry or andean cherry.

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It is a fruit that is considered a “functional food” because, according to Harman (2004), it has immune stimulating, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, it has medicinal properties such as purifying the blood, reducing renal albumin, soothing throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, cleaning cataracts, and controlling amebiasis (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and the Department of National Planning), 1994 ). It is a source of vitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).

Internally, we’re working on fermentation. Therefore, the first development was to ferment uvillas for later analysis by means of a survey of a total of 100 people, including professionals in the gastronomy and real consumers. Tasting is an emotional type whose simple goal is to achieve a positive or negative response to the acceptance of fermented fruit.

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We were inspired by Japanese techniques and customs of fermenting fruits, such as the famous “prune”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is actually plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume), which literally translates to “dried plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu dipping wine from umeboshis.

In the case of plums, it is a Japanese apricot that grows in early summer when it begins to change its color from green to yellow, and is preserved for several months in salted water through lactic acid fermentation. They are then dehydrated in the sun and kept semi-dry. They are usually red because they are fermented with red perilla leaves, but they also exist without perilla. In Japan, it is most commonly eaten with a cup of Baja tea desalinated with tempura, or most importantly, over a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, referring to the Japanese flag). (Hoskin, R., 2001)

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The purpose of this development is to obtain a fermented physalis with great gastronomic value similar to the Japanese product “umeboshi”, to promote its use, and to spread it worldwide as a new marketable Andean product.

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It is known as a cellular process in which glucose is used for energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally mainly used in the production of dairy products such as yogurt, viili, creme fraiche, lambic-type beer as well as vegetables and fruits, Such as sauerkraut, kimchi or prunes.

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Lactic acid fermentation takes place in three stages; initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter are more involved in the fermentation, creating a favorable acidic environment for the next bacteria. The second stage begins when the environment is too acidic for most bacteria and for Leuconostoc mesenteric and other Leuconostoc species. In the third stage they controlled, various lactobacilli ferment any remaining sugars and lower the pH.

These bacteria have the important characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in brine conditions, that’s why lactic fermentation is always related to the percentage of salt, we are always talking about at least 2% – 3% salt that will be fermented total weight. In this case, in addition to providing a selective living environment for the lactic acid bacteria, the salt also extracts moisture from the product through osmosis, accelerating fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi”, it is traditionally made with 20%-25% salt, but they can be found in the market at 4%.

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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden tanks are used, always taking care that the product is completely covered with liquid to prevent direct contact of the product with oxygen, but it does have aerobic fermentation, which is why vacuum bags are currently used. (Always leave oxygen behind) for easy handling.

Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen because they were acceptable salt ranges in fermented products and previous tests. All products are made in vacuum bags with 85% vacuum.

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Fermentation was carried out in a refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, this was done because in tests with other products, cold fermentation was better from a sensory point of view, improving flavour and smell.

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The tests with higher amounts of salt were too salty for us, and many of the special flavors of the physalis were hidden behind the strength of the salt. Tests with less salt have better acceptance. Even so, the first test can be used after the product has been soaked and desalinated, insisting that some of the flavor and aroma is lost during soaking.

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We can say that fermented Uvira can be used like “prunes” because of its very similar acidity and salinity properties, and can be used as part of garnishes, sauces, etc., or as a simple snack. In this section, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermented liquid extracted from grapefruit, a clear, salty liquid that can be used as any fermented sauce to enhance any preparation such as condiments, broths, sauces, marinades etc.

After several months of fermented product development and different sensory and consumer testing, we saw that 3% salt was the most accepted, and in a product acceptance tasting of 100 people, the acceptance was 80%, and the other 6% of salt and 8% if accepted in lesser quantities, the least acceptable 12%.

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This opens up huge possibilities for us in different lacto-fermented fruits. We have experimented with different fruits and vegetables looking for other uses for lactic fermentation, in these cases, with very good nutritional and gourmet effects in restaurants and everyday use.

– Alvarez Box, Gilberto; Campo de Vivanco, Geni; Espinosa Meja, Marco; Loja Manual of Viticulture Techniques (physalis peruviana L.). Loja, Ecuador, 2012.

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—Fisher, Gerald; Martinez, Orlando. Quality and maturity of Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. Year 1999.

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—Fisher, Gerrard; Miranda, Diego; Wilson Piedrahita, Jorge Romero. Cultivation, post-harvest and export progress of Colombian Cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.). Faculty of Agriculture, National University of Colombia, Bogota, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.

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—JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ALVIA ROCIO. Nutritional assessment of dehydrated cape gooseberries (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a tray dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.

– Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, General Coordination of National Information Systems; Direction of Research and Generation of Multisectoral Data (DIGDM). Economic and agro-ecological zoning of viticulture (physalis peruviana L.) in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.

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– Ministry of Foreign Trade, Business Intelligence and Investment Agency. Foreign Trade Monthly Report, page 16. year 2013.

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