Padded Coffee Table With Storage – In the previous post we presented the Governor of Ecuador together with a summary of all the research and development work of two Ecuadorian, plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). On this occasion we will present only one of the products which are physalis or uvilla as they call it together in their country, Ecuador.
Uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant of the Solanaceae family and its fruits grow and ripen inside the calyx. Its origin is unclear but it is believed to be in the South American Andes such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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Mostly, we find it in the tropical area of America, Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main countries that produce uvilla are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, UK, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Worldwide, the top export countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The genus “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the edible ones today is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, cape gooseberry or andean cherry. .
It is a fruit considered a “functional food” since according to Harman (2004) it has immune-stimulating, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, medicinal properties such as blood purification, reduction of albumin in the kidneys, reduction of throat problems, strengthening of the optic nerve, clearing of cataracts and control of amebiasis are involved (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and Department of National Planning). , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Internally we are working hard on fermentation. Therefore, the first development was to ferment the motorcycles for later analysis through surveys of a total of 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomy sector and real consumers. Taste was a form of influence with a simple objective of achieving a positive or negative response to the acceptance of fermented fruit.
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We were inspired by the Japanese technique and tradition of lactically fermenting fruit, such as the famous “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese fruit is actually plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume) and the correct translation is “dried plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu alcoholic beverages with umeboshis.
In the case of umeboshi, it is a Japanese vegetable that is grown in early summer when it starts to change color from green to yellow and is preserved in lactic fermentation with salt for several months. They are then dehydrated in the sun and preserved in dry parts. They are usually red in color because they are fermented with red shiso leaves, but they are also available without shiso. The most common method used in Japan is a cup of bacha tea, made with tempura or, most importantly, on top of a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, referring to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The purpose of this development is to obtain fermented physalis similar to the Japanese product called “umeboshi” with great gastronomic value, promoting its use and dissemination as a new Andean product that can be marketed throughout the world.
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It is called the manual process where glucose is used to obtain energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and where the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used in milk products such as yogurt, viili, creme fraiche, lamb type – the. beer as well as vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation occurs in three phases; Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter actively ferment, producing a favorable acid environment for the following bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment is too acidic for most bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc spp. Controlled by the third stage of the Lactobacillus variety, they ferment any remaining sugars and lower the pH.
This bacteria has the great characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, and that is why lactic fermentation is always related to the percentage of salt, we always talk about at least 2% – 3 % of salt in reference. up to the total weight of what will be fermented. In this case, in addition to creating a selective environment for milk bacteria to live, salt removes water from the product by osmosis, accelerating fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi” it is traditionally made with 20%-25% salt, but it can be found in the market with 4%.
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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, bottles or wooden bottles are used, always be careful that the product is completely covered with liquid to prevent the product from direct contact with oxygen, but it has an aerobic fermentation, which is the cause of the vacuum. bags are now used (always leave oxygen) to facilitate handling.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, these differences were chosen because the fermented products and the tests already accepted a certain amount of salt. All done in an 85% vacuum bag.
Fermentation was carried out in the refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, it was done in this way since the testing of other products, the execution of cold fermentation gave good results from the organoleptic point of view, improving the taste and smell.
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Experiments with large amounts of salt are too salty for us, and much of the unique flavor of physalis is hidden in the strength of the salt. Experiments with a small amount of salt have received good acceptance. However, the first tests can be used after soaking and cleaning the product, insisting that part of its taste and aroma will be lost during this soaking.
We can say that fermented uvilla can be used in the same way as “umeboshi” because of the acidity and salinity characteristics very similar, as part of the decoration, sauce, etc., or as a light snack. In this section, if we classify the fermented product in the fermented liquid produced from uvilla, transparent liquid and salt that can be used in any fermented sauce, enhancing any preparation such as dressings, soups, sauces, marinades, etc.
After several months of yeast product development and organoleptic tests with different customers, we saw that the most accepted was 3% salt, with 80% accepted the taste acceptance of the product made by 100 people, another percentage of salt such as 6% and 8% if accepted in less than 12%.
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This opens up great opportunities for different fruits and vegetables for breastfeeding, we have already tested different fruits and vegetables and are looking for other benefits for lactic acid fermentation, in these conditions with very good nutritional and gastronomic results. used in restaurants and every day.
– ALVARES BOXES, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANCO, GENNY; ESPINOSA MEJIA, MARCO; Technical manual for cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– FISHING, GERARD; Martinez, ORLANDO. Quality and maturity of Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. In 1999.
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– FISHING, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRAHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Cultivation development, post-harvest and export of cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional evaluation of dehydrated cap gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a dehydration tray. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, GENERAL COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM; Research direction and multidisciplinary data generation (DIGDM). Agroecological agroecology of the uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) cultivation area in Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– MINISTRY OF FOREIGN TRADE, DIRECTORATE OF TRADE AND INVESTMENT INTELLIGENCE. Foreign Trade Report Page 16. 2013.
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