Low To The Ground Coffee Table – In a previous article, we presented the President of Ecuador with a summary of the research and development of two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). This time we will present only one of the products, the physalis or uvilla as they call it in the common language in its country of origin, Ecuador.
The uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family and its seeds grow and ripen in a calyx. Its origin is not known but it is believed to be in the Andes of South America such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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It is generally found in the tropical regions of America, Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main uvilla producing countries are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Globally, the largest exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Animal Husbandry and Livestock, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The genus “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the edible ones is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, cape gooseberry or Andean cherry. .
It is a fruit considered a “functional food” because according to Harman (2004) it has immunostimulant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, drugs such as purifying the blood, reducing albumin in the kidneys, relieving throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, clearing cataracts and controlling amebiasis are involved. (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and the Department of National Planning. , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Inside we are hard at work on fermentation. Therefore, the first development is cooking uvilla for later analysis through a survey of 100 people, both professionals in the field of food and real consumers. The experiment is an affective type with the simple goal of obtaining a positive or negative response to the acceptance of the sweet fruit.
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We were inspired by Japanese techniques and practices of lactic fermentation of fruits, such as the famous “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is actually a plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume) which literally means “dry plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu liquor macerated with umeboshis.
As for umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that grows at the beginning of summer when its color starts to change from green to yellow and is preserved through lactic fermentation in salt for a few months. They are then exposed to the sun and semi-dried. They are usually red in color because they contain red shiso leaves, but they are also available without shiso. The most common way to eat them in Japan is in a cup of bacha tea, seasoned with tempura or, especially, on a rice bowl (hinomau bento, referring to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The goal of this development is to obtain fermented physalis similar to the Japanese product called “umeboshi” with great gastronomic value, promote its use and spread it as a new Andean product that can be sold around the world.
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It is called the cellular process in which glucose is used to obtain energy, which is partially glucose and the waste product is lactic acid, commonly used in the production of dairy products such as yogurt, viili, creme fraiche, lambic-type beer as well as vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation occurs in three stages; Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter are more active in fermentation, producing a favorable acidic environment for subsequent bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment becomes too acidic for most bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. they control In the third step, various Lactobacillus processes the remaining sugars and lowers the pH.
These bacteria have a great characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, which is why lactic fermentation is always related to the percentage of salt, talking about about salt at least 2% – 3% of the connection. of the total weight of what will be fermented. In this case, in addition to creating a selective environment for lactic bacteria to live, salt removes water from the product by osmosis, accelerating fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi” it is made with 20%-25% salt, but they can be found in the market starting from 4%.
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Normally for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden bottles are used, always taking care that the product is completely filled with water so that the product does not come into direct contact with oxygen, but there is an aerobic fermentation, which is why the vacuum bag . currently used.(always leave oxygen) to facilitate handling.
The percentage of salt was tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this type was chosen because in the fermented products and previous tests, the salt was accepted. All of them were made in bags with 85% vacuum.
Fermentation was carried out in a refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, this was done because in tests with other products, cold fermentation gave better results from an organoleptic point of view , improves taste and smell.
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The test done with the amount of salt is too salty for us and most of the special taste of physalis is hidden behind the hardness of the salt. Tests with high salt concentrations are more acceptable. However, the first test can be used after soaking and desalting the product, emphasizing that part of its flavor and aroma is lost in this soaking.
We can say that fermented uvilla can be used in the same way as “umeboshi” due to its acid and salinity characteristics, as part of garnish, sauce, etc., or as food. simple. In this part, if we distinguish the fermentation products that are extracted from the uvilla, it is clear water and salt that can be used as any fermentation sauce, improving all preparations such as dressings, broths , sauce, marinade, etc.
After several months of development of fermented products and different organoleptics and consumer tests, we found that the most acceptable is 3% salt, with 80% acceptance of the product acceptance experiment carried out on 100 people, a percentage of salt to 6% and 8% if they are accepted in smaller amounts, of which 12% is the least accepted.
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This opens up a great opportunity for us with various fermented lactic fruits. We have tried various fruits and vegetables looking for other uses for lactic acid fermentation, in these cases we have food and gastronomic products. very good for restaurant and daily use.
– BOXES ALVARES, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANCO, GENNY; ESPINOSA MEJIA, MARCO; Technical guide for the cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– FISHER, GERARD; MARTINEZ, ORLANDO. Quality and maturity of Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. 1999.
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– FISHER, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRAHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Progress in cultivation, post-harvest and export of cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional evaluation of dehydrated cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a plate dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FARMING AND LIVESTOCK, GENERAL PROGRAM OF NATIONAL EDUCATION; PATH OF RESEARCH AND MULTISECTORIAL DATA MANAGEMENT (DIGDM). The economic agroecological zoning of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) cultivation in the continent of Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– MINISTRY OF TRADE, DIRECTORATE OF COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTMENTS. Foreign Trade Monthly Bulletin Page 16. 2013.
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