Farmhouse Coffee And End Table – In a previous post, we presented the Chair of Ecuador together with a summary of all research and development work on two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). On this occasion we will present just one of the products which is physalis or uvilla as they call it colloquially in their country of origin, Ecuador.
Uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family and its fruit grows and ripens inside its petals. Its origin is unclear but it is believed that it is in the Andes of South America such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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Mainly, we find it in the tropical zone of America, Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main uvilla producing countries are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Worldwide, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The genus “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the edible ones today is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, cape gooseberry or andean cherry. .
It is a fruit that is considered a “functional food” because according to Harman (2004) it has immuno-stimulant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, medicinal properties such as purifying the blood, reducing albumin in the kidneys, relieving throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, clearing cataracts and controlling amebiasis are donated to it (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and the Department of National Planning). , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Inside we are working hard on fermentation. Therefore, the first development was to ferment uvilla for later analysis through a survey conducted on a total of 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomic sector and real consumers. Feeling is an affective type with the simple objective of achieving a positive or negative response regarding the reception of the fermented fruit.
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We were inspired by the Japanese technique and custom of lactically fermenting fruit, such as the famous “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is actually a plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume) as a literal translation of “dried plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeboshi liquor with umeboshi.
In the case of umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot grown in early summer when it begins to change its color from green to yellowish and preserved through lactic fermentation in salting for several months. They are then dehydrated in the sun and kept semi-dry. It is usually red because it is fermented with red shiso leaves, but it also exists without shiso. The most common way to eat it in Japan is in a cup of bacha tea, desalted in tempura or, most notably, over a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, referring to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The objective of this development is to obtain fermented physalis similar to the Japanese product called “umeboshi” that has great gastronomic value, promote its use and spread it as a new Andean product that can be marketed around the world.
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It is called a cellular process in which glucose is used to obtain energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and in which the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used in the production of mainly dairy products such as yogurt, viili, creme fraiche, lambic types. beer and vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation occurs in three phases; At first, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter act more strongly in fermentation, creating a good acidic environment for the next bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment is too acidic for most bacteria and other Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc spp. they control In the third phase various Lactobacillus ferment any remaining sugars and lower the pH.
These bacteria have the great characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, which is why lactic fermentation is always associated with a percentage of salt, we are always talking about at least 2% – 3% of salt in contact. to the total weight of what will be fermented. In this case, besides generating a selective environment for lactic acid bacteria to live, salt extracts water from the product by osmosis, accelerating fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi” it is traditionally made with 20%-25% salt, but it can be found in the market from 4%.
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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden jars are used, always taking care that the product is completely covered with liquid to prevent the product from coming into direct contact with oxygen, but it has an aerobic fermentation, which is why vacuum bags are being used. (always leaving oxygen) to facilitate handling.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen because in the fermented products and previous tests they received a range of salt. Everything is made in a vacuum bag with 85% vacuum.
Fermentation is carried out in a refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, it is done this way because in tests with other products, carrying out cold fermentation gives better results from an organoleptic point of view, improving taste and smell.
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Tests carried out with higher amounts of salt were too salty for us and most of the specific taste of physalis was hidden behind the intensity of the salt. Tests with smaller amounts of salt have better acceptance. Even so, the first test can be used after soaking and desalting the product, confirming that part of its taste and aroma is lost in this soaking.
We can say that fermented uvilla can be used in the same way as “umeboshi” due to its almost identical acidity and saltiness characteristics, as part of a garnish, sauce, etc., or as a simple snack. In this section, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermentation liquid extracted from the uvilla, a transparent and salty liquid that can be used as any fermented sauce, enhancing any preparation such as dressings, soups, sauces, marinades, etc.
After several months of development of the fermented product and different organoleptic and consumer tests, we saw that the most accepted was 3% salt, with 80% acceptance in the product acceptance tasting carried out on 100 people, another percentage of salt as 6% and 8% if it is accepted in less quantity, which is the least accepted 12%.
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This opens up great possibilities for us in different lactically fermented fruits. We have tried different fruits and vegetables looking for other uses for lactic acid fermentation, in this case having excellent nutritional and gastronomic results for use in restaurants and every day.
– BOX ALVARES, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANCO, GENNY; ESPINOSA MEJIA, MARCO; Technical Manual for the cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– FISHER, GERARD; MARTINEZ, ORLANDO. Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) quality and maturity in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santafe de Bogota. 1999.
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– FISHER, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRAHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Progress in cultivation, post-harvest and export of cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional evaluation of dehydrated cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a tray dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES, GENERAL COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM; DIRECTION OF RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION OF MULTISECTORIAL DATA (DIGDM). Economic agroecological zoning of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) cultivation in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– MINISTRY OF FOREIGN TRADE, DIRECTORATE OF COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTMENT. Monthly Foreign Trade Bulletin Page 16. 2013.
Andes Scientific article Aspergillus oryzae lactic acid bacteria fermented drink drink yacón Bellota Bolivia Coffee powder Caffeine Barley horsetail Ecuador Equisetum arvense Peninsula Spain Gustu Fermentation Formula GustuLAB Wild herb ice cream IJGFS koji Kombucha malus sylvestris wild apple Initiative Materritz vest Mujer Cheese Fresh belly Oak residue Sandor Katz SCOBY Sempio Sustainability Symposium Tarwi green tea Urtica dioica field trip Nothing really brings a living room together like a good coffee table and that inspired us to share with you today some projects that we think are really cool. Below you can find details on some DIY farmhouse coffee table projects that are pretty easy to build and each one is eye-catching in its own way.
They play around with different designs and different proportions and like any DIY project, they are all customizable and adjustable.
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