Coffee Table Wrought Iron Legs – In a previous post we presented the President of Ecuador together with a summary of all the research and development work of two Ecuadorian products, plantains (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). On this occasion we will present only one of the products which is the physalis or uvilla as they call it colloquially in their country of origin, Ecuador.
The uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant that belongs to the Solanaceae family and its fruit grows and ripens inside its calyx. Its origin is not clear but it is believed to have been in the Andes of South America such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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Mainly, we find it in the tropical area of America, the Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main countries that produce uvilla are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, ir -United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Worldwide, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The genus “physaloides” includes from 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of those eaten today is the physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, cape gooseberry or andean cherry . .
It is a fruit considered a “functional food” as according to Harman (2004) it has immunostimulating, anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, medicinal properties such as purifying the blood, reducing albumin in the kidneys, reducing throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, cleaning cataracts and control of amebiasis are contributed to it (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and the Department of National Planning, 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Inside we are working intensely on the fermentations. Therefore, the first development was to ferment the uvillas for later analysis through a survey carried out on a total number of 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomy sector and real consumers. The tastings were of an affective type with the simple aim of obtaining a positive or negative reaction regarding the acceptance of the fermented fruit.
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We were inspired by a Japanese technique and custom of fermenting fruit in a lactic way, such as the well-known “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is really a plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume) which is the literal translation “dried plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu macerated liquor with umeboshis.
In the case of umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that is cultivated at the beginning of summer when it starts to change its color from green to yellow and is preserved through lactic fermentation in salting for a few months. They are then dehydrated in the sun and kept semi-dry. They are usually red in color because they are fermented with red shiso leaves, but they also exist without shiso. The most common way to consume them in Japan is in a cup of tea bacha, removed in tempura or, most significantly, on a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, which refers to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The aim of this development is to obtain a fermented physalis similar to a Japanese product called “umeboshi” of great gastronomic value, promote its use and spread it as a new marketable Andean product around the world.
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It is called the cellular process where glucose is used to obtain energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and where the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used in the production of dairy products mainly such as yogurt, viili, creme fraiche, lambic-type beers as well as vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation takes place in three phases; Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter act more strongly in fermentation, producing an acidic environment favorable for the next bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment is too acidic for most bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. take control In the third phase several Lactobacillus ferment any remaining sugars and lower the pH.
These bacteria have the great characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in saline conditions, so lactic fermentations have always been related to a percentage of salt, we are always talking about a minimum of 2% – 3% of salt in relation to the total weight of what will be fermented. In this case, besides generating a selective environment for the lactic acid bacteria to live in, the salt extracts water from the products by osmosis, accelerating the fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi” it is traditionally made with 20%-25% salt, but they can be found in the market from 4%.
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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden jars are used, always taking care that the product is completely covered with the liquid to prevent the product from being in direct contact with oxygen, but it has aerobic fermentation, and therefore vacuum bags are currently used.(always leave oxygen) to facilitate handling.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen since in the fermented products and previous tests were accepted ranges of salt. All were made in a vacuum bag with a vacuum of 85%.
The fermentation was done in a refrigerator at 4ºC for two months, it was done in this way since in tests with other products, carrying out the cold fermentation gave better results from an organoleptic point of view, improving the taste and r -smell.
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The tests carried out with a higher amount of salt are too salty for us and much of the specific taste of the physalis is hidden behind the intensity of the salt. The tests with less amount of salt had better acceptance. Even so, the first tests can be used after soaking and removing the salt of the product, insisting that part of its flavor and aroma is lost in this soaking.
We can say that the fermented uvilla can be used in the same way as the “umeboshi” due to its very similar acidity and salinity characteristics, as part of a garnish, sauces, etc., or as a simple snack. In this part, if we differentiate the fermented product from the fermentation liquid that is extracted from the uvilla, a transparent and saline liquid that can be used as any fermented sauce, which strengthens any preparation such as dressings, broths, sauces, marinated, etc.
After several months of development of the fermented products and different organoleptic and consumer tests, we saw that the most accepted was 3% salt, with an acceptance of 80% in a product acceptance taste carried out on 100 people , other percentages of salt as 6% and 8% if they were accepted in less quantity, which would be the least accepted 12%.
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This opens up great possibilities for us in different lactically fermented fruits. We have already tried different fruits and vegetables looking for other uses for lactic fermentation, in these cases we have very good nutritional and gastronomic results for use in restaurants and on a daily basis.
– BOXES ALVARES, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANCO, GENNY; ESPINOSA MEJIA, MARCO; Technical Manual for the cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– FISHER, GERARD; MARTINEZ, ORLANDO. Quality and maturity of Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santafe de Bogota. 1999.
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– FISHER, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRAHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Advances in cultivation, post-harvest and export of Cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional evaluation of dehydrated kappa gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a tray dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– MINISTRY FOR AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES, GENERAL COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM; DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH AND MULTISECTORAL DATA GENERATION (DIGDM). Economic agroecological zone of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) cultivation in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– MINISTRY OF FOREIGN TRADE, DIRECTORATE OF COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTMENTS. Monthly Bulletin on Foreign Trade Page 16. 2013.
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