Coffee Table For Studio Apartment – In a previous entry we presented the Ecuador president with a summary of all research and development work on two Ecuadorian products, plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and physalis (Physalis peruviana L.). On this occasion we are going to present only one of the products which is Physalis or Yuvila as they colloquially call it in their native country of Ecuador.
Uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant of the Solanaceae family and its fruit grows and ripens inside its calyx. Its origin is unclear but it is believed to have been in the South American Andes such as Peru (Legg, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomas et al., 1990).
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Mainly, we find it in tropical areas of America, Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru are the main uvilla producing countries. Globally, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The genus of “Physaloids” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the edibles today is Physalis peruviana, also known as Guchuba, Uchuva, Uvilla, Cape Gooseberry or Andean.
According to Harman (2004), it is a fruit considered a “functional food” because it has immuno-stimulatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, its medicinal properties contribute to blood purification, reducing albumin in the kidneys, relieving throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, clearing cataracts and controlling amoebiasis (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and Department of National Planning. , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Inside we are working intensively on fermentation. Therefore, the first development was to ferment yeasts for later analysis through surveys of a total of 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomy sector and real consumers. Flavors are affective types with the simple purpose of eliciting a positive or negative response regarding the acceptance of the fermented fruit.
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We are inspired by the Japanese technique and practice of lactically fermenting fruit such as the famous “Umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is actually a plum (Prunus mum, Armenian mum) literally translated as “dried plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu macerated wine with umeboshis.
In the case of umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that is grown at the beginning of summer when it begins to change from green to yellow and preserved for a few months through lactic fermentation in salt. They are then dehydrated in the sun and kept semi-dry. They are usually red in color because they are fermented with red shiso leaves, but they also exist without shiso. The most common way to consume them in Japan is in a cup of bacha tea, desalted in tempura or, most notably, on top of a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, referring to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The objective of this development is to obtain a fermented physalis similar to a Japanese product called “umeboshi” of great gastronomic value, promote its use and spread it as a marketable Andean product worldwide.
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It is called a cellular process where glucose is used to obtain energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and where the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used mainly in dairy products such as yogurt, Vieille, crème fraîche, lambic-type products. Beer as well as vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation occurs in three stages; Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter act more strongly on fermentation, producing an acidic environment favorable for other bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment becomes too acidic for many bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. They take control In the third stage, various lactobacilli ferment the remaining sugars and lower the pH.
These bacteria have the great characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, so lactic fermentation is always related to the percentage of salt, we always talk about a minimum of 2% – 3% salt in relation. in total weight of what is going to be fermented. In this case, in addition to creating a selective environment for lactic bacteria to live, the salt draws water from the products by osmosis, speeding up fermentation. In the case of “Umeboshi” it is traditionally made with 20%-25% salt, but they can be found in the market from 4%.
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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden jars are used, always taking care that the product is completely covered with liquid to prevent it from being in direct contact with oxygen, but it has an aerobic fermentation, therefore a vacuum. Bags are currently used.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen after the fermented products and the salt ranges they accepted in previous tests. All were vacuum bagged with 85% vacuum.
Fermentation was carried out in a refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, it was done in this way because when tested with other products, cold fermentation gave better results from an organoleptic point of view, improved taste and smell.
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Tests done with high amounts of salt are too salty for us and the very distinctive taste of physalis is hidden behind the intensity of the salt. The trial with low salt was well tolerated. However, the first tests can be used after soaking and desalting the product, emphasizing that it loses part of its flavor and aroma during soaking.
We can say that fermented uvilla can be used as “umeboshi” due to its very similar acidity and salinity characteristics, as part of garnish, sauce, etc., or as a simple snack. In this part, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermented liquid extracted from the uvula, a transparent and salty liquid that can be used as a fermented sauce, to enhance any preparation such as dressings, broths, sauces, marinades, etc.
After several months of development of fermented products and various organoleptic and consumer tests, we saw that the most accepted was 3% salt, with 80% acceptance in a product acceptance taste made in 100 people, another percentage of salt 6% and 8% if they were accepted in low amounts, 12% of the minimum sanctioned.
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This opens up great possibilities for us in various lactically fermented fruits. We have already tried different fruits and vegetables looking for other uses for lactic acid fermentation, these conditions have very good nutritional and gastronomic results for use in restaurants and on a daily basis.
– Alvarez Bucks, Gilberto; Campoverde Vivanco, Jenny; Espinosa Mejia, Marco; Technical manual for cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– Fisher, Gerard; Martinez, Orlando. Quality and maturity of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. 1999.
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– Fisher, Gerard; Miranda, Diego; Wilson Piedrahita, George Romero. Progress in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) cultivation, postharvest and export in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– Juntamay Tenezaka, Elvia Rossio. Nutritional evaluation of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) dehydrated at three temperatures using a tray dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, General Coordination of National Information System; Directing Research and Production of Multidisciplinary Data (DIGDM). Economic agroecological aspects of uvilla cultivation (Physalis peruviana L.) in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– Ministry of Foreign Trade, Directorate of Commercial Intelligence and Investment. Monthly Foreign Trade Bulletin Page 16. 2013.
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