Coffee And End Tables Sets – In the previous entry we have presented the Chair of Ecuador together with a summary of all the research and development work of two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). On this occasion we will present one of the products that is physalis or uvilla as they are called colloquially in their country of origin, Ecuador.
Uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant that belongs to the Solanaceae family and its fruits grow and ripen in its calyx. Its origin is unclear but it is believed to be in the South American Andes such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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First, it is found in the tropical region of America, the Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main uvilla producing countries are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Globally, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Government of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The foundation of “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the ones eaten today is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, gusiberi cape or andean cherry. .
It is a fruit that is considered a “functional food” because according to Harman (2004) it has immune-stimulant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, medicinal properties such as purifying the blood, reducing albumin in the kidneys, removing throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, clearing cataracts and controlling amebiasis are attributed to it (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and National Planning Department). , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Inside we are working intensely on fermentation. Therefore, the first development is to ferment uvils for later analysis through surveys conducted on a total number of 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomy sector and real consumers. The taste has been kind of influenced with the simple goal of achieving a positive or negative response by taking fermented fruits.
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We have been inspired by the Japanese technique and culture of lactically fermenting fruits, such as the well-known “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is really red (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume) literally means “dried plum”. Umeboshi is a traditional way to make umeshu liquor macerated with umeboshis.
In the case of umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that grows in early summer when it starts to change its color from green to yellow and is preserved by lactic fermentation in salt for a few months. They are dried in the sun and kept semi-dried. They are usually red in color because they are made with red shiso leaves, but they are also available without shiso. The most common way to eat them in Japan is in a cup of bacha tea, dipped in tempura or, most importantly, on top of a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, referring to the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The purpose of this development is to obtain fermented physalis similar to the Japanese product called “umeboshi” of great gastronomic value, promoting its use and distribution as a new Andean product that can be marketed throughout the world.
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It is a cellular process where glucose is used to get energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and where the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used in the production of dairy products in particular such as milk, viili, creme fraiche, lambi type. juices such as vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation occurs in three stages; Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter are more active in fermentation, producing a favorable acidic environment for the following bacteria. The second stage begins when the environment is too acidic for many bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. they take control. In the third stage, various Lactobacillus ferment any remaining sugars and lower the pH.
These bacteria have a great habit of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, that is why lactic fermentations are always related to percentages of salt, we are always talking about at least 2 % – 3% of salt in relation. to the total weight of what is going to be fermented. In this case, in addition to creating a selective environment for lactic bacteria to live in, salt removes water from products through osmosis, speeding up fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi” it is customary with 20%-25% salt, but they can be found on the market from 4%.
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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden jars are used, always taking care that the product is filled with water to prevent the product from being in direct contact with oxygen, but it has aerobic fermentation, which is cause of vacuum. Bags are currently used (often leaving air) to facilitate handling.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, where we chose since the fermented products and their previous tests accepted the salt ranges. They are all made in a vacuum bag with 85% vacuum.
The fermentation is carried out in a refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, it is done in this way because of experiments with other products, keeping the cold fermentation for the best results from the organoleptic point of view, improving the taste and smell.
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The tests we did with the highest salt were too salty for us and much of the specific flavor of the physalis was hidden behind the intensity of the salt. Tests with a lower amount of salt are better accepted. Even so, the first tests can be used after softening and drying the product, emphasizing that part of its flavor and aroma is lost in this softening.
We can say that fermented uvilla can be used in the same way as “umeboshi” because of its similar acidity and salinity characteristics, as part of decoration, sauces, etc., or as a simple snack. In this section, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermentation water extracted from the uvilla, clear water and salt that can be used as any fermented sauce, enhancing any preparation such as dressings, broths, sauces, marinades , and so on.
After several months of development of fermented products and various organoleptic and consumer tests, we found that the most acceptable is 3% salt, with 80% acceptance in the taste acceptance of the product made on 100 people, another percentage of salt as 6 % and 8% if they receive a small amount, less than 12%.
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This opens up great opportunities for us in different lactic acid fruits.
– ALVARES BOXES, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANCO, GENNY; ESPINOSA MEJIA, MARCO; Technical strategy for the cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
-FISH, GERARD; Martinez, ORLANDO. The quality and growth of Cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) is related to the color of the fruit. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. Year 1999.
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-FISH, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRAHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Advances in cultivation, post-harvest and export of cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional evaluation of dried cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a tray assay. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– Agricultural, livestock and fishing service, connection with the INFORMATION organization; Direction of Research and Development of Multiple Data (DIGDM). Economic agroecological zoning of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) cultivation in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– Ministry of Foreign Trade, Director of OMERCIAL Skills and Investment. Foreign Trade Monthly Bulletin Page 16. 2013.
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