36 X 36 Coffee Table – In the previous post we presented the chairs of Ecuador with a brief description of all the research and development activities of two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). This time we will introduce one of the products of physalis or uvilla as they call it orally in their country of origin, Ecuador.
Uvilla (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant of the Solanaceae family and the fruits grow and develop in a calyx. Its origin is unknown but it is believed to be in the Andes of South America such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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Usually, we find it in the tropical regions of America, the Antilles and Australia. According to some sources, the main countries that produce uvilla are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Worldwide, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Livestock and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO 1982).
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The genus “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998) and one of the edibles today is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, gooseberry cape or andean cherry. .
It is a fruit that is considered “active food” since according to Harman (2004) it has immuno-stimulant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, medicinal products such as blood purification, reduction of albumin in the kidney, elimination of throat problems, strengthening of the optic nerve, eye cleaning and amebiasis control are donated (Corporación Colombia Internacional, Universidad de los Andes and Ministry of Planning by country). , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Inside we are working hard on fermentation. Therefore, the first step is to ferment uvils for later research through a survey conducted on a number of 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomy sector and real consumers. The flavors were a type of simple effect with the simple goal of achieving a positive or negative result regarding the reception of the mixed fruit.
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We were inspired by the Japanese art and tradition of carving soft fruit, such as the well-known “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot is actually a plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume) being the literal translation of “dry plum”. Umeboshi is traditionally used to make umeshu macerated liquor with umeboshis.
As for umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that is grown at the beginning of summer when it begins to change its color from green to yellow and is preserved through lactic fermentation in salting for a few months. Then they are dried in the sun and dried. They are usually red in color because they are mixed with red shiso leaves, but they also exist without shiso. The best way to eat them in Japan is in a cup of bacha tea, dipped in tempura or, more importantly, on top of a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, meaning the Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The purpose of this development is to obtain fermented physalis similar to the Japanese product called “umeboshi” with gastronomic value, improve its use and spread it as a new Andean product marketed worldwide.
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It is called a cellular system where glucose is used for energy, in which glucose is partially oxidized and where the waste product is lactic acid, it is traditionally used to produce many dairy products such as yogurt, viili , creme fraiche, a type of lambic. beer and vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic fermentation occurs in three stages; First, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter work hard in fermentation, creating a good acidic environment for future bacteria. The second stage begins when the environment is too acidic for most bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc spp. they take control In the third phase different Lactobacillus increase all other sugars and lower the pH.
These bacteria have the great characteristic of being halophilic, unlike other bacteria that die in saline conditions, that is why lactic fermentation is always related to the amount of salt, we always talk about a small 2% – 3% of salt in relation to. to the total weight of the material to be mined. In this case, in addition to providing a selective environment for lactic acid bacteria to live in, salt removes water from the products through osmosis, promoting fermentation. Regarding “umeboshi” it is usually made with 20%-25% salt, but they can be found in the market from 4%.
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Traditionally, for this type of fermentation, glass or wooden bottles are often used, taking care that the product is filled with water to prevent the product from direct contact with oxygen, but it has a fermentation of aerobic, which is why the vacuum. Currently, bags are used (always leaving oxygen) to facilitate processing.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen since in the fermented products and previous tests a range of salt was accepted. All are made in a clean bag with 85% vacuum.
Fermentation was carried out in the refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, it was done in this way since in experiments with other products, the process of cold fermentation gave the best results from the organoleptic point of view, improving the taste and aroma.
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Experiments done with a large amount of salt are more salty than us and most of the specific taste of physalis is hidden behind the intensity of salt. Experiments with less salt were better accepted. However, the first tests can be used after soaking and decanting the product, insisting that part of its taste and smell are lost in this soaking.
We can say that fermented uvilla can be used as “umeboshi” because of its similar acidity and salinity characteristics, as part of decoration, bread, etc., or as a simple snack. In this part, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermentation water obtained from the uvilla, a light and salty water that can be used as a dipping sauce, enhancing any preparation such as dressings, broths, sauces, marinades, and etc.
After many months of the development of fermented products and various organoleptic and consumer tests, we found that the most acceptable is 3% salt, with 80% approval in a product acceptable tasting and will be on 100 people, a percentage of salt such as 6% and 8% if they are accepted in less than a lot, being the minimum accepted 12%.
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This opens up a great opportunity for us in different saturated fruits, we have already tried different fruits and vegetables to find some uses for the increase of lactic acid, in these cases they get results good nutritional and gastronomic food for use in restaurants and daily.
– ALVARES KALLANA, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANCO, GENNY; ESPINOSA MEJIA, MARCO; Technical manual for the cultivation of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) in Loja. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– MAI FISHER, GERARD; MARTINEZ, ORLANDO. Quality and maturity of Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in relation to fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogota. 1999.
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– MAI FISHER, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRAHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Development in the cultivation, post-harvest and export of gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– JUNTAMAY TENEZACA, ELVIA ROCIO. Nutritional value of dehydrated cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a tray dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Health, INTRODUCING THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM; Director of Research and Development of Information (DIGDM). Economic agroecological zoning of uvilla namo (physalis peruviana L.) in Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– Ministry of Foreign Trade, Director of INTELLIGENCE AND COMMENTARY. Foreign Trade Monthly Bulletin Page 16. 2013.
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* Gardez à l’esprit que nous ne pochoirons pas les caisses – ce sont des objets trouvés originalaux.
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