25 Inch Round Coffee Table – In a previous article, we presented the Ecuador department along with a summary of all the research and development of two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis peruviana l.). This time we are going to introduce just one of the products, namely physalis or uvillia as it is colloquially called in its country of origin, Ecuador.
Uvila (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant of the nightshade family, the fruits of which grow and ripen in a calyx. Its origin is unknown, but it is believed to have been in the South American Andes such as Peru (Leggue, 1974), Brazil (CRFG, 1997) and Ecuador (Bartholomaus et al., 1990).
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We mainly meet him in the tropical zone of America, in the Antilles and in Australia. According to some sources, the main uvilla producing countries are Colombia, South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, India, Italy, Argentina, South Africa, Great Britain, Canada, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Honduras and Peru. Globally, the main exporting countries are: Zimbabwe, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, Peru, Bolivia and Mexico. (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2011, Ecuador, FAO, 1982).
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The genus “physaloides” includes 90 to 100 species (D`Arcy, 1991; Martínez, 1998), and one of the edible ones today is physalis peruviana, also known as guchuba, uchuva, uvilla, cape goberry or andean cherry. .
It is a fruit that is considered a “functional food” because, according to Harman (2004), it has immune-stimulating, anti-cancer, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. In addition, it has medicinal properties such as purifying the blood, reducing albumin in the kidneys, relieving throat problems, strengthening the optic nerve, clearing cataracts, and controlling amebiasis (Corporación Colombia International, Universidad de los Andes, and Department of National Planning). , 1994). It is a source of provitamin A and vitamin C (Herman, 1994b).
Internally, we work intensively on fermentation. Therefore, the first development was the fermentation of uvillas for further analysis through a survey conducted among 100 people, both professionals in the gastronomic sector and real consumers. Tastings were of an affective type with the simple aim of obtaining a positive or negative response regarding the acceptance of fermented fruits.
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We were inspired by the Japanese technique and practice of fermenting fruit in a milky way, such as the well-known “umeboshi”. The word “ume” or Japanese apricot actually means plum (prunnus mume, armeniaca mume), which literally translates as “dried plum.” Umeboshi is traditionally used to make macerated umeshu liqueur from umeboshi.
In the case of umeboshi, it is a Japanese apricot that is grown in early summer, when it begins to change its color from green to yellowish, and is preserved through lactic acid fermentation in salt for several months. Then they are dehydrated in the sun and stored in a semi-dry state. They are usually red in color because they are fermented with red shiso leaves, but they also exist without shiso. The most common way to consume them in Japan is as a cup of bacha tea, desalted in tempura or, most importantly, over a bowl of rice (hinomau bento, meaning Japanese flag). (Hosking, R., 2001)
The aim of this development is to obtain a fermented physalis similar to the Japanese product called “umeboshi”, which has a high gastronomic value, promoting its use and distribution as a new commercial product of the Andes worldwide.
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This is called a cellular process in which glucose is used for energy, in which the glucose is partially oxidized and the waste product is lactic acid, traditionally used in the production of mainly dairy products such as yogurt, wiley, crème fraîche, lambic. beer, and vegetables and fruits such as sauerkraut, kimchi or umeboshi.
Lactic acid fermentation occurs in three phases; Initially, anaerobic bacteria such as Klebsiella and Enterobacter are more active in fermentation, creating a favorable acidic environment for subsequent bacteria. The second phase begins when the environment is too acidic for most bacteria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and other Leuconostoc species. they take control In the third phase, various lactobacilli ferment any remaining sugars and lower the pH.
These bacteria have the remarkable characteristic of being halophilic, unlike many other microorganisms that die in salty conditions, so lactic acid fermentation has always been associated with a percentage of salt, we always talk about a minimum of 2% – 3% salt in relation to the total weight of that , which is going to ferment. In this case, in addition to creating a selective environment for the life of lactic acid bacteria, salt extracts water from products by osmosis, accelerating fermentation. In the case of “umeboshi”, 20-25% salt is traditionally prepared, but on the market they can be found from 4%.
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Traditionally, glass or wooden jars are used for this type of fermentation, always making sure that the product is completely covered by the liquid to prevent direct contact of the product with oxygen, but it has an aerobic fermentation, so vacuum bags are currently used (always leaving oxygen behind), to facilitate transportation.
Different percentages of salt were tested: 2%, 3% and 6%, this range was chosen because they were acceptable salt ranges in fermented products and previous tests. They were all vacuum bagged with 85% vacuum.
Fermentation was carried out in a refrigerator at 4ºC for 2 months, this was done because in tests with other products cold fermentation gave better results from an organoleptic point of view, improving taste and smell.
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Tests carried out with more salt turned out to be too salty for us, and a large part of the specific taste of physalis is hidden by the intensity of the salt. Tests with less salt were better tolerated. Despite this, the first samples can be used after soaking and desalting the product, insisting that some of its flavor and aroma are lost during this soaking.
We can say that fermented uvilia can be used in the same way as “umeboshi” due to its very similar characteristics of acidity and saltiness, as part of a side dish, sauces, etc. or as a simple snack. In this part, if we distinguish the fermented product from the fermentation liquid that is extracted from the uville, a clear and salty liquid that can be used as any fermented sauce, improving any preparations such as dressings, broths, sauces, marinades, etc.
After several months of developing fermented products and various organoleptic and consumer tests, we found that 3% salt was the most acceptable, with 80% acceptance in a product tasting conducted for 100 people, other salt percentages of 6% and 8%, if accepted in smaller quantities, being the least acceptable 12%.
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This opens us up to great opportunities for lactic acid fermentation of different fruits. We have already tried different fruits and vegetables, looking for other ways of lactic acid fermentation, in these cases we have had very good food and gastronomic results for use in restaurants and on a daily basis.
– ALVARES BOXES, GILBERTO; CAMPOVERDE VIVANKO, JENNY; ESPINOZA MEDJIA, MARCO; Technical manual for growing uvilla (Physalis peruviana L.) in Loya. Loja, Ecuador, 2012.
– FISHER, GERARD; MARTINEZ, ORLANDO. Quality and maturity of Cape Gooseberry (physalis peruviana L.) depending on fruit color. National University of Colombia, Santa Fe de Bogotá. 1999 year.
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– FISHER, GERARD; MIRANDA, DIEGO; WILSON PIEDRACHITA, JORGE ROMERO. Advances in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Cultivation, Postharvest Work, and Export in Colombia. National University of Colombia, Faculty of Agronomy, Bogotá, 2005. ISBN: 958-701-603-3.
– HUNTAMAI TENEZAKA, ELVIA ROSIO. Evaluation of the nutritional value of dehydrated cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) at three temperatures using a dehydrator. Riobamba, Ecuador, 2010.
– MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES, GENERAL COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM; DIRECTION OF RESEARCH AND FORMATION OF MULTIFIELD DATA (DIGDM). Economic agroecological zoning of uvilla (physalis peruviana L.) cultivation in continental Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador, 2014.
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– MINISTRY OF FOREIGN TRADE, COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTMENT DIRECTORATE. Monthly foreign trade bulletin Page 16. 2013.
Andes Scientific article Aspergillus oryzae lactic acid bacteria fermented beverages yacon drink Bellota Bolivia Coffee grounds Caffeine barley horsetail Ecuador Equisetum arvense Peninsula Spain Fermentation formula Gustu GustuLAB Ice cream wild herbs IJGFS koji Kombucha malus sylvestris wild apple Mater initiative miso Mugaritz Nettle Peru quercus robur Roots fresh cheese Waste oak Sandor Katz SCOBY Sempio Sustainability Symposium Tarwi Green Tea Urtica dioica Study Trip In a previous post, we featured the Ecuador Department along with a summary of all the research and development on two Ecuadorian products, plantain (musa paradisiaca) and physalis (physalis). peruviana L.). This time we are going to introduce just one of the products, namely physalis or uvillia as it is colloquially called in its country of origin, Ecuador.
Uvila (physalis peruviana l.) is a plant of the nightshade family, the fruits of which grow